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                        Volume 70, Issue 12
                        15 June 2020
                        ISSN 1058-4838
                        EISSN 1537-6591

                        Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020

                        News

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages i–ii, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa273

                        In The Literature

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages iii–iv, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa480

                        ARTICLES AND COMMENTARIES

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2461–2468, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz717

                        We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of an environmental cleaning bundle for preventing healthcare-associated infections. Compared with current hospital cleaning practices, bundle implementation was cost-effective at $4684 per quality-adjusted life-years based on predicted reductions in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and vancomycin-resistant infection rates.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2469–2475, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz694

                        In a study of 203 patients with suspected central nervous system infections, cranial computed tomography was done prior to lumbar puncture in the majority of patients, irrespective of guideline indications, and was not associated with treatment delays.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2476–2483, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz678

                        Corrected for imperfect imputation, boosted regression trees generated more representative case fatality ratio estimates than could be obtained without imputation. These estimates, used in tandem with other resources, are essential for public health planning and evaluation in resource-poor settings.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2484–2492, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz739

                        Following introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the United States, incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease declined through herd effects among adults with and without underlying medical conditions. Invasive pneumococcal disease cases were identified among adults ≥19?years old through Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs), an active, laboratory/population-based system established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Emerging Infections Program with approximately 23.2 million adults. A?case was defined as isolation of pneumococcus from a sterile site (eg, blood, cerebrospinal fluid) in a resident of an ABCs area [14].

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2493–2495, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz743
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2496–2502, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz676

                        Mathematical modeling demonstrated how increases in influenza vaccine effectiveness or coverage during influenza seasons of varying severity would result in substantial reductions to influenza-associated illnesses, medically attended illnesses, and hospitalizations in the United States.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2503–2504, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz683
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2505–2513, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz719

                        We observed differences in (H1N1)pdm09 vaccine virus shedding rates with a change in the (H1N1)pdm09 live attenuated influenza vaccine strain. We show that age and vaccination history impact shedding levels.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2514–2516, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz722
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2517–2526, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz685

                        Leading causes of childhood encephalitis are epidemic enteroviruses/parechovirus or bacterial in infants; influenza, herpes simplex virus, or enteroviruses in children; and immune-mediated or Mycoplasma pneumoniae in older children/adolescents. Cause was unknown in 17%. Death (5%) and short-term neurological morbidity (27%) were frequent.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2527–2529, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz690
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2530–2540, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz720

                        This study provides evidence for a large intensive care unit (ICU) population–level reduction in all significant ICU-acquired bloodstream infections across the UK ICU network between 2007 and 2012 in conjunction with the implementation of a national infection control program.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2541–2543, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz721
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2544–2552, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz740

                        In this controlled human malaria infection study with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite challenge, individuals with serological evidence of higher recent and cumulative malaria exposure had a longer prepatent period, lower mean parasite density at the time of treatment, and fewer symptoms of malaria.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2553–2560, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz698

                        In neonatal intensive care unit patients who received 3 common antibiotic regimens, each additional day of therapy was associated with 16% lower gut anaerobes within 1 week postantibiotic exposure, after adjustment for known variables of gut microbiota diversity.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2561–2567, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz671

                        Prior to mass drug administration, we estimate that lymphatic filariasis (LF) cost 5.25 million disability-adjusted life years and US $5.765 billion annually. The high burden of LF without control demonstrates the need for the Global Programme to Eliminate LF.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2568–2569, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz674
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2570–2579, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz737

                        A second dose of the investigational trivalent group B streptococcus (GBS) vaccine, given 4–6 years after the first dose, elicited a robust immune response for each vaccine serotype in nonpregnant women, including in those with undetectable predose 1 anti-GBS antibody levels.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2580–2581, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz738
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2582–2590, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz677

                        Many cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) regress spontaneously or persist, but to date there is no method to predict progression. In this study, we show that a DNA methylation classifier can predict progression or regression of untreated CIN grade 2.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2591–2592, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz682
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2593–2598, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz741

                        Posaconazole-induced pseudohyperaldosteronism is associated with higher posaconazole serum concentrations, which are correlated with increased blood pressure, decreased potassium, and an increase in 11-deoxycortisol.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2599–2606, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz684

                        Neural tube defects have been reported among infants born from women taking a wide range of antiretrovirals in 4 pharmacovigilance databases. Safety reports were inconsistent between databases and very hard to interpret

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2607–2615, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz731
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2616–2618, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz735
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2619–2627, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz669

                        From 2001–2016, 4.6% of 163 million US adults, and 19.7% of 4.9 million with an injection drug use (IDU) history, had histories of hepatitis B virus infection. This represents 7.6 million adults, including 970?000 with IDU histories.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2628–2633, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz727

                        We identified multiple pathogenic clinical isolates of Clostridioides difficile that produced high levels of toxin A?but minimal or no toxin B, highlighting the pathogenic significance of toxin A?and implications for C.?difficile infection diagnoses, treatment, and vaccine development.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2634–2640, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz686

                        In this study, we evaluate the host cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 response in the first 7?days of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SaB) treatment. β-lactam therapy resulted in a more favorable host response, underscoring the importance of using β-lactams whenever possible for SaB, including select methicillin-resistant S.?aureus patients to help elicit favorable host cytokine response profiles.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2641–2648, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz670

                        In a cross-sectional matched controlled study in people living with human immunodeficiency virus aged 55 to 70 years with controlled viremia, we found that neurocognitive impairment was significantly increased, and HIV significantly associated with impairment after controlling for other predictors.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2649–2651, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz675
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2652–2662, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz726

                        In people who inject drugs, considering health-sector costs, the use of direct antiviral agents (DAA) was the most cost-effective intervention. With criminal justice system–related costs, DAA, implemented with medication-assisted treatment and syringe access programs, become the most cost-effective.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2663–2672, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz704
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2673–2674, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz709
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2675–2682, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz732

                        Post hoc analysis of the Starting Antiretroviral Therapy at Three Points in Tuberculosis trial demonstrates high incidence rates of liver injury among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–tuberculosis (TB) coinfected patients receiving concomitant treatment for TB and HIV.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2683–2694, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz697

                        There were differences between characteristics of each human metapneumovirus (hMPV) genotype infection, but disease severity was not altered according to hMPV subtype. Our 10-year surveillance provides valuable information about clinical characteristics of hMPV infections and climate factors contributing to viral transmission.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2695–2702, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz693

                        The hepatitis C virus reinfection rate was low among people who inject drugs on opioid agonist therapy. Rates were higher among those reporting ongoing injection drug use. Attention should be paid to high-risk behaviors following successful treatment with direct-acting antivirals.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2703–2705, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz695

                        BRIEF REPORTS

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2706–2709, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz936
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2710–2711, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz937
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2712–2714, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz961
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2715–2718, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz977
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2719–2720, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz980

                        VIEWPOINTS

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2721–2723, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz1026

                        Recent deaths of migrant children from overwhelming infections in US detainment centers have brought to light outbreaks in these facilities, delays in medical care, and inadequate medical expertise. Advocacy by clinicians and professional societies is critical to resolving this crisis.

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2724–2726, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz1029

                        REVIEW ARTICLE

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2727–2735, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz994

                        A systematic approach is essential to accurately diagnose, classify, and manage spinal cord stimulator infections. Deep infection involving the implant components usually warrants device removal to achieve cure. Duration of antimicrobial therapy depends on the clinical presentation.

                        INVITED ARTICLE

                        INNOVATIONS IN DESIGN, EDUCATION AND ANALYSIS (IDEA)

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2736–2742, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz437

                        The management of infectious disease relies very heavily on diagnostic information. Current standard evaluations of diagnostic tests do not effectively convey the clinical significance of the test, which is critical to informing clinical decision-making. AWA provides an alternative whereby the goal is to evaluate diagnostic utility using a holistic perspective.

                        PHOTO QUIZ

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2743–2746, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz870

                        CORRESPONDENCE

                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2747–2748, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz724
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2748–2749, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz725
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Page 2749, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz766
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2749–2750, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz839
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2750–2751, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz855
                        Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 70, Issue 12, 15 June 2020, Pages 2751–2752, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz856
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